The topic of reproduction of saintpaulias (violets) is very relevant at the present time. There are a huge number of recommendations in magazines and on the Internet. All of them are interesting and relevant, I will tell you about the most important thing - what every novice florist should know.
Let's start in order. Everyone knows that violets reproduce by leaf cuttings. We will talk about this. It all depends on what material you choose.
Choosing a violet leaf for propagation
What should not be taken for breeding? Sheets that have changed color, damaged or bottom row. Because they have little nutrient reserves. And if such a leaf still gives roots, then a healthy, beautiful plant will not work out of it.
Which sheet to choose? Choose a normally formed sheet from the second row of the rosette. The petiole of which must be elongated. If it starts to rot a little, then you can trim it and repeat the procedure again. If the plant has two or more flowers, then a light colored leaf should be chosen. This will help increase the likelihood that the resulting flower will match the color of the parent. That, in fact, is what the violets are trying to achieve. If the violet is pinnate, you must choose a leaf in which more than half is green. It is very important.
It is better to break off the sheet from the outlet, but not cut off. If, nevertheless, it did not work to break off and you used a knife, in this case, a stump will remain on the trunk of the plant. It needs to be removed. Because it can rot. You need to break off near the very base. In order not to harm either the future cuttings or the plant itself.
A freshly broken leaf will begin to wilt within a few hours after you detach it from the flower. And if you need to save it, then wrap it in a damp cloth, a piece of cloth. After that, you can put the leaf in a bag. Everything, now it is ready for transportation.
Read about how to root a violet leaf in the next article - rooting a violet cutting in water.
Reproduction of violets by cuttings
Cut a leaf into a stalk
For breeding violets, it is best to choose a leaf that is neither young nor old. - from the middle of the outlet. The stalk can be pinched off or cut with a thin, small, sharp knife. It is necessary to separate the leaf so as not to damage the main plant and not leave a "stump" there, which will rot. Therefore, pinch off the sheet as close to the ground as possible.
Before rooting, you need to make a cut of the cutting. The cutting itself should be 4-7 cm long. Cut off its bottom obliquely (45˚). It is better when the cut surface is 2-4 cm in length - there will be more roots and rosettes.
Chimeras (bred varietal violets of unusual colors) do not propagate with a leaf. More precisely, they reproduce, but the color of the flower and the shape of the leaves are not preserved.
Violet breeding utensils
Most often, lovers of violets grow a new plant from a leaf. Mom and I are no exception. This is perhaps the most common way. After all, begging for a leaf from a friend (or unfamiliar) fan of Saintpaulias is much easier than begging for a bush.
Since the leaves are not all rooted, we, as a rule, took at least 2-3 leaves from a violet of one new variety. Well, if you got one, thanks for that.
To propagate violets by cuttings, we constantly procured empty cups of yogurt or baby puree. In general, any plastic container will do - even plastic 100-gram glasses are sold in the disposable tableware departments, just fine. Several leaves can be planted in a shallow container (4-5 cm deep) of a larger size at some distance (5 cm) from each other - so that it is convenient to dig up.
Where to root a violet - in water or earth
To germinate the roots, a violet leaf is either put in water for a while, or immediately dropped into the ground.
If you put a violet stalk in water, make sure that it does not rot. The water should be warm, but not hot. Add crushed coal for disinfection.
Roots usually appear in 1 to 2 weeks. After that, you can already plant it in the ground. But you can wait for the appearance of new shoots, they will appear after 1-2 months of standing in the water. New sprouts come from the cut - if you keep the leaf in water until they appear - let them grow a little so that they do not sprinkle with soil when planting in a pot. And in general, do not drop the sprouted stalk deeply, otherwise the sprouts will have to wait for a long time. The optimum depth is 1-1.5 cm.
In our experience, violets germinated in water bloom faster. But if it is cold in the house, the cuttings can rot if they stand in the water for a long time. And not everywhere the water is good (either chlorine or other impurities).
Then fit a way of rooting violets in the ground.
After cutting, the leaf is immediately planted in the ground. At the same time, the substrate should be super-light - even looser than the main soil for Saintpaulias. Therefore, calcined river sand is added to the “Saintpaulia” soil, which is on sale. You can use sphagnum moss (you can buy it at the store or dig up in the forest). Fresh moss is best calcined in the oven, spread out on foil (at the same time, it will dry slightly). Just don't burn it.
The substrate must be watered with warm water and not allowed to dry out. When rooting in the ground, the process is delayed anyway, so new shoots do not appear soon.
Young sprout should be kept away from drafts and in no case in the sun. You can even arrange a mini greenhouse for him from a plastic bag.
After rooting (after 1-2 months), the grown sprouts need to be transplanted into a permanent pot. Before this, the plant and the pot must be treated with insect, virus and fungal agents.
Where and when to transplant children of violets
Before planting in a permanent pot, it is better to separate the old leaf, leaving only the children. This applies to the methods of germination both in water and in the ground. Babies - new leaves - appear in 5-6 weeks. There are up to a dozen children on one handle. When they grow up to 3-4 centimeters, then they are separated and planted in a permanent pot.
Why peel off an old sheet? So that he does not pull away the strength of growth. Also, this maternal leaflet can rot, spreading disease.
How can you propagate a violet
There are different ways of breeding violets. In this case, the choice of any of them may depend not only on personal preferences, but also on the type of plant. The agricultural technology of this flower provides for the following types of reproduction:
- leaf rooting
- cultivation with peduncles
- jigging stepsons.
Each of these types has advantages and disadvantages. But, whichever method you choose, it is necessary to select offspring only from a healthy and strong mother bush. Better to start with the easiest and most common way.
We grow new bushes from a leaf
Vegetative reproduction of violets is one of the most common. This is due, first of all, to the availability and prostate performance. Having mastered this method, it will be much easier to cope with more complex breeding methods. Therefore, we will dwell on its consideration in more detail.
Last but not least, the quality of the new bush and the success of reproduction depends on the correctly selected planting material. When choosing a sheet, you need to ensure that it is:
- firm and juicy
- had a rich color
- Free from pests, rot or stains.
Do not seek to select the largest leaf for transplantation. Typically, large leaves are in the first row and are the oldest on the bush. Such material will take root for a long time. Young leaves from the very core are also not worth using, since they have not yet gained strength. The best option for propagation by cuttings will be sheets of 2 and 3 rows from the point of growth.
The method of separating the sheet is also of considerable importance. Of course, if there is no cutting object at hand, then the sheet can simply be broken off. But when it comes to preparing planting material at home, it is better to use a clean and sharp knife. The leaf is cut in such a way that a process of at least 5 mm remains on the bush. To avoid contamination, the cut site should be sprinkled with ash or crushed coal. The cut itself is made at an angle of 45º. The length of the leaf leg should not exceed 4 cm.
There are two ways to root a Saintpaulia leaf: in water or in soil. The advantage of the first method is that the grower can observe the formation of the root system and assess the result in a timely manner. In the second case, the plant does not have to be transplanted and the young root system is disturbed, which greatly reduces the adaptation period of the sprout.
Rooting a violet leaf in water
If you decide to make sure that the leaf will give roots, then you only need to use boiled water for rooting. Add a tablet of activated carbon to a glass of water, this will disinfect the water and remove excess impurities. You cannot place a glass with a leaf in the sun. A warm, dry and shaded place is best for rooting. It is difficult to say how quickly the first spine will appear. It all depends on the variety of violets, germination conditions, leaf readiness. The main thing in this process is to follow the tip of the leg. If it starts to rot, it must be cut off and the water in the glass changed. After the leaf gives roots about 1 cm, it can be safely transplanted to a permanent place.
Violet is an amazing plant, it can be propagated even by leaf fragments
Rooting a violet leaf in the ground
When rooting directly in the ground, you need to take a small pot or disposable glass. Place the drainage at the bottom of the container, then the soil. It is better to use nutritious, but not oversaturated soil. Sod land is well suited for germination. The soil should be light, loose and well-drained.
Violets do not like too much moisture, so water the plant well when planting. The next time the soil can be moistened only after it dries out. You can speed up the process by covering the planting material with a transparent bag, thus creating a greenhouse effect.
When germinating in the ground, it is more difficult to assess the rooting result, so carefully observe the condition of the leaf. If, after a few days after planting, it begins to wilt, carefully remove it from the ground and renew the cut. After about a month and a half, young shoots should appear next to the leaf.
We use peduncles for reproduction
Saintpaulia flowers are not only delicate in beauty, but also well suited for reproduction. Rather, the reproductive function of a violet is performed not by the flowers themselves, but by the peduncles. This option differs little from propagation by cuttings. True, it is a little more difficult to root a peduncle than a leaf. But this method is perfect if the mother plant is too young or, for some reason, it is impossible to get high-quality planting material.
For reproduction, it is best to choose peduncles with large stipules. You can trim them right away, or you can first admire the flowering, and as soon as the flowers begin to fade, trim the stalk. Flowers are not needed for rooting. They are cut almost to the very base of the peduncle, leaving 1-2 mm each. The lower part of the peduncle depends on the violet variety. If the length allows, then the cut is made at an oblique angle, if not, the stalk can be cut evenly.
Before planting, the sections are dried for several minutes, and the soil mixture can be treated with a solution of preparations containing zircon. This will help the peduncles to root faster, accelerate growth and comprehensively support the plant. The soil is used the same as when rooting the leaves.
It is better to put pots with peduncles in a small greenhouse or covered with a film. At the same time, do not forget to ventilate the seedlings and monitor the soil moisture. If the process goes well, then after 1.5 months new leaves will appear on the stem.
In some cases, vegetative propagation will not bring the desired result. For example, “Chimera” saintpaulia simply rots when trying to root. In this case, pinching will help to propagate a beautiful variety.
However, the home violet does not belong to plants that require weeding and is very reluctant to acquire children. To stimulate the formation of stepchildren, the mother bush will have to be slightly damaged. To do this, pinch the smallest leaves in the center of the plant.
Young shoots are separated from the mother bush with a sharp knife. This can be done as soon as 2-3 pairs of true leaves appear on the sprout. Further, the rooting of the stepson is carried out according to a scheme similar to the rooting of a leaf:
- a young bush is lowered into a glass of water if the trunk is long enough to allow the roots to germinate by water without drowning the growth point
- rooted stepson can be placed in a loose substrate
- in addition, germination of roots in moist moss gives good results.
The main rule for sprouting stepchildren is to maintain a constant temperature (not lower than 22 ° C) and moderate humidity.
Indoor violet, reproduction of which occurs with the help of stepchildren, gives an independent young plant after 1.5 months. That is why the pinching method, although it is more complex, is always popular with experienced florists.