Ledum is an evergreen shrub that is part of the Heather family. Scientifically, this plant is called ledum, which makes it closer to incense. Its dense leaf plates, like incense, have a pungent woody smell. Translated from the Old Russian language, "wild rosemary" is poisonous, intoxicating, intoxicating. The people also call this plant hemlock, goddess, oregano, wild rosemary.
Wild rosemary is widespread in nature. It can be found in the Northern Hemisphere, or rather, in the temperate subarctic belt. Most often, wild rosemary is grown as a medicinal plant, but some gardeners decorate their garden plots with it.
Peculiarities of wild rosemary
Ledum is a shrub or shrub that is a perennial. Its height varies from 0.5 to 1.2 m. Its rhizome is superficial and branched, and short processes extend from it. Thin branching shoots are quite strong and tough. Depending on the type, the stems are ascending, erect, and also creeping. While the shoots are young, they are painted in a greenish-olive shade, and on their surface there is a rusty pubescence. After some time, a smooth dark bark appears on their surface.
Leafy plates with short petioles do not fly around throughout the year. They are alternately leathery to the touch and painted in a dark green hue. Their shape is lanceolate or elongated, the edge is bent downward, and a relief median vein stands out on the surface. If the bush is in direct sunlight for a long time, then its foliage acquires a brownish-brown tint. If you rub the leaf between your fingers, you can feel a heady, strong aroma.
Dense umbrellas are formed on last year's stems, while flowering lasts from April to June. Each flower has a short stalk. The bell-shaped calyx is formed of white oval petals. Each flower has the number of all elements in multiples of five. Pollination of flowers occurs at the expense of insects, then the formation and maturation of dry seed bolls, which have five sections, are observed. Each of them contains winged seeds of a very small size.
Pay special attention to the fact that there is poison in any of the parts of this plant! Remember to wash your hands thoroughly after any work with rosemary. But harm from a bush can be obtained without even touching it, but simply standing nearby and inhaling its smell. This can lead to feeling weak and dizzy. Despite the fact that this plant can be attributed to melliferous plants, you should know that both pollen and honey also contain poison. You can taste this honey only after prolonged heat treatment and only quite a bit.
Growing in the garden
Ledum is distinguished by its unpretentiousness and undemanding care. It is recommended to plant a seedling in the garden in spring. However, if he has a closed root system, then planting can be carried out from spring to autumn.
This plant has a superficial root system. In this regard, the depth of the pit for planting should not exceed 0.4–0.6 m. Do not forget to make a drainage layer with a thickness of 50 to 80 mm at the bottom, for this you should use pebbles or sand. In this case, the site should be picked up with loose and acidic soil. For growing wild rosemary, moist soil is perfect, into which needles should be added. When planting several bushes in the ground, they maintain a distance of 0.6 to 0.7 m. When the bush is planted, the soil surface around it is compacted, and the plant itself is well watered. After the water is completely absorbed into the soil, its surface is sprinkled with a layer of mulch (peat).
Ledum is distinguished by its moisture-loving nature, since in nature it prefers to grow near water bodies. Therefore, the plant should be provided with systematic watering, they are not needed only when it rains often.
When choosing a place for planting, it should be borne in mind that wild rosemary grows well and develops both in shade and in a well-lit area. It can be grown in the shade, but in this case its flowering will be irregular, and the bush itself will look less impressive.
Weeding and loosening
Weed if necessary, and remember to systematically loosen the soil near the bushes. However, this should be done very carefully, because their root system is superficial.
They feed the wild rosemary only during the growing season, or rather, in the spring and summer. For this, a mineral complex fertilizer is used.
Sanitary pruning of the bush should be done twice a year: in March and in October. At this time, all injured, diseased and dried branches are cut off. And also at this time, formative pruning is carried out, if necessary, shortening strongly elongated stems.
Ledum has good frost resistance. At the same time, even frosty winters do not harm him. However, the tops of young bushes can freeze during a winter with little snow. In spring, after the branches damaged by frost are cut, new shoots will soon appear in their place.
Diseases and pests
This plant is highly resistant to various diseases. He is not afraid even of stagnant water in the roots, but this is only if you systematically loosen the soil surface. If this is not done, then a fungus may develop on the plant.
It is extremely rare that wild rosemary is attacked by pests such as spider mites and bugs. To eradicate them, use insecticidal preparations. However, this culture is able to scare off most of the pests on its own, both from itself and from the bushes growing in the neighborhood.
For propagation of wild rosemary, both vegetative and seed methods are used.
Growing from seeds
Under natural conditions, most often such a shrub grows from seeds. In order to collect seeds with your own hands, you need to pluck the right amount of ripened small seed pods. If they are not collected in time, then they will crack independently from the bottom up, and the seeds will spill out onto the ground. These boxes look like very small chandeliers.
The collection of seed is carried out in the autumn, and its sowing only at the beginning of spring. Take a container and fill it with a medium of sand and garden loose earth. The soil mixture must be acidic, moist and loose. Spread the seed evenly over the surface of the substrate and press it just a little into the soil mixture. Cover the crops with glass or foil and place in a place where it is always cool. Provide crops with systematic watering and ventilation. The first seedlings can be seen in about 3.5-4 weeks. Seedlings should be cut into individual peat pots when they grow up and get stronger. Instead, the seedlings can be planted in a larger box, with a fairly large distance between the bushes, which will help avoid root tangling.
Growing from cuttings
If you already have wild rosemary in your garden, then it will be much easier to propagate it by layering. Select several stems and bend them to the surface of the soil, in which a depression of about 20 centimeters is made in advance. Fix the shoot in this position and sprinkle it with soil, while the top must be above the surface of the site. After the cuttings have grown roots, it should be separated from the mother plant and planted in a permanent place.
Dividing the bush
If the bush is overgrown, then in the spring when transplanting it can be divided into several parts. Dig up the bush and remove all the soil from its roots, and then cut the bush into several divisions. Take the charcoal powder and sprinkle it on the cuts. Immediately after the plant is divided, parts of it should be planted in a permanent place.
Propagation by cuttings
Cuttings are harvested in the summer, semi-lignified stems are used for this. Please note that each cutting should have 2 or 3 leaf plates. Treat the lower cut with a growth stimulant solution. For rooting, cuttings are planted in containers filled with fertile and loose soil mixture. Those leaf plates that are close to the surface of the substrate should be shortened or removed entirely. It will take time for the cuttings to give roots and get stronger, in this regard, they are planted in a permanent place only with the onset of the spring period.
Types of wild rosemary with photo
The genus Ledum is not numerous and unites only six species. Moreover, most, namely, four species can be found on the territory of Russia.
Marsh Ledum (Rhododendron tomentosum)
This species is a typical member of the genus and prefers to grow in temperate areas. The height of such a dense shrub is about 120 cm. The surface of the branching raised stems is covered with a short rusty shade of hair. The glossy dark green foliage has a rather pleasant aroma. The beginning of flowering occurs in the last spring weeks, at which time dense corymbose or umbellate inflorescences open on the branches. They consist of very small flowers, pinkish or white.
Greenlandic Ledum (Rhododendron groenlandicum)
The shoots are lodging and rather tough; they can reach about 0.9 m in length. They are colored brownish. The shape of the narrow leaf plates is linear; they are located on the stems very close to each other. At first glance, it may seem that the branches are covered with soft needles of a rich green color. On the seamy surface of the twisted sheet plates, there is pubescence, represented by a felt pile. The flowering bush is decorated with small (about 60 mm) umbellate inflorescences with cream or white flowers. This species is highly resistant to frost.
Large-leaved wild rosemary (Ledum macrophyllum)
Under natural conditions, this species grows in Japan, the Far East and Korea. The height of the bush can vary from 0.4 to 0.8 m. It prefers to grow on mountain slopes and rocky embankments. The length of oval sheet plates is from 30 to 40 mm, and their width is from 8 to 15 mm. The seamy surface of the foliage and young shoots are pubescent with dense red hair.
Transbaikalian wild rosemary (Rhododendron dauricum)
Not so long ago, wild rosemary and rhododendron were synonymous. However, even today, some gardeners think that the Transbaikalian wild rosemary is part of the Ledum genus. However, in fact, it is only a very distant relative of the wild rosemary, which is scientifically called "Daurian rhododendron". The height of this highly branching shrub can vary from 0.5 to 2 meters. On the branches there are dense narrow leaf plates of a dark green color. The inflorescences are colored bright pink. Often such a plant can be seen as a "rosemary" in various bouquet arrangements in vases.
The use of wild rosemary in the garden
Ledum has a dense crown, consisting of narrow dark green foliage, and also has a pubescence of a light red hue. All this makes the shrub very attractive. Most often, such a plant is used for landscaping the banks of rivers and other bodies of water, wet soil, free space between large trees and rocky embankments. In a group planting, wild rosemary looks the most impressive. Often, the shrub is used for zoning a garden area or for creating a hedge. It is recommended to grow cranberries, rhododendrons, stachis, heather, blueberries, haulteria or cereals near wild rosemary.
Ledum, both in foliage and in flowers, has many biologically active substances: tannins, vitamin C, phytoncides, essential oils, flavonoids and gum. This plant is used in both non-traditional and official medicine.
A decoction of wild rosemary has antimicrobial and antiseptic properties. For external use, compresses were made from it, and also poured into baths. And inside it was taken to treat ARVI, cough and intestinal infections.
Tea with the foliage of such a plant has a sedative effect. It also improves sleep. Another treatment with wild rosemary helps with whooping cough, kidney and liver diseases, eczema, chickenpox, pneumonia, bronchitis, gastritis, boils and cholecystitis. The plant has a beneficial effect on women's health. It is used in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases and to strengthen muscles.
In everyday life, the foliage of the bush is used to scare away moths and blood-sucking insects.
Ledum medicinal properties
You can not take funds based on wild rosemary for individual intolerance and allergy sufferers. During pregnancy, they should also be discarded because they increase the tone of the uterus.
Even if there are no contraindications, such funds should be taken under the supervision of a doctor, since an overdose can lead to sad consequences.
Superstitions and omens
There are many legends about wild rosemary, there are also many superstitions and signs. In this regard, most flower growers do not dare to decorate their home with them. However, this plant is quite useful: it promotes healing of the body and cleans the air of pathogenic microbes. But be careful, because if the bush is in the room during flowering, then all people living there will experience severe headaches. With this, the sign is connected that because of this plant, households become irritable, nervous and they begin to have various problems. However, if you leave a few flowers on the bush, then he will be able to cleanse the house of negative energy.
TWO SPECIES of wild rosemary. RODODENDRON. SWAMP BAG.
Elecampane belongs to the genus of perennial plants of the Astrov family. Usually this is a plant with whole multi-veined leaves and large yellow inflorescences. Quite often you can find such names as Yellow color, Elena's tears, Oman. The genus Astrovich has more than 100 species that grow in the wild, about 30 of them can be found in our country. The most typical for our latitudes is elecampane high inula Helenium). It grows mainly in meadows, forest edges near water bodies. The plant blooms in the month of July and lasts an average of one month. The upper flower baskets bloom first, and then the inflorescences on the side shoots. Due to its impressive size and beautiful flowering, elecampane will look great in garden landscaping. It is great for solitary planting and will create a beautiful view, becoming the center of attention. Gardeners who grow not only ornamental plants, but also fruit crops should consider elecampane as an excellent honey plant.
In all the expanses of our planet, there are more than 300 species of elecampane. These species grow in the temperate zone of Eurasia and in the savannas of Africa. Here is some of them:
- Spread out.
- The eye of Christ.
As decorative species in our latitudes are grown: tall elecampane, sword-leaved and magnificent elecampane.
Where does the rosemary plant grow?
Ledum is a cold-resistant plant. It can be found in the forest and tundra zone, in coniferous boggy forests, in the forest belt at the foot of the mountains, along river valleys and in peat bogs. The shrub grows well on poor and acidic soils with strong moisture.
Ledum is distributed throughout Central and Northern Europe. It is found in Japan, China, and North America. Large areas of this unpretentious flowering plant are found in Central Europe. Where does rosemary grow in Russia? Most often it is found in the north of the European part of our country, in Eastern and Western Siberia, as well as in the Far East. In addition, this type of flowering shrub became widespread in the foothills of the Sayan Mountains and in the Eastern Altai.
All types of plums, regardless of taste, contain a lot of fiber and natural sugars - glucose, fructose and sucrose. Both fresh and dried fruits are rich in pectins, tannins, organic acids, antioxidants, calcium, iron, phosphorus and potassium. Plums contain ascorbic acid and vitamin P (it is especially abundant in the skins of dark-colored varieties), flavonols, anthocyanins and leukoanthocyanins: all these substances are necessary for vascular health, they have anti-sclerotic and capillary-strengthening effects. Yellow fruits are rich in carotene. There is as much vitamin E in plums as in peaches and rose hips. Fruits of different varieties contain iodine, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, folic and nicotinic acid, vitamins of group B. There is especially a lot of vitamin B2 in plums, which improves protein metabolism and strengthens the nervous system. Kirkazonovaya grass propagates by seeds, cuttings, root layers. Cuttings are prepared in spring or autumn: cut annual shoots 20 cm long with several buds. Sand is added to the soil fertilized with humus. Cuttings are inserted into the ground at an angle, leaving several buds above the surface, watered and fertilized abundantly. Then cover with a transparent cap, which is removed after the first leaves appear. Layering is a simpler and more efficient method. The shoot of the vines is laid and pressed to the ground, after a season the shoot takes root, it is cut off from an adult plant, transplanted to a permanent place of germination. The propagation and layering method is the fastest and most popular among gardeners. Depending on its resistance to cold weather, the vine is planted in open ground in spring or autumn. Frost-resistant species, in the form of two or three-year seedlings, are planted in autumn, non-frost-resistant ones - in spring. Due to the wide root system, to ensure good development, the plants are planted at a distance of at least 1 m from each other. For planting, a pit is prepared up to half a meter in depth and width. 10 - 20 cm of drainage is laid on the bottom (expanded clay, crushed stone, gravel, broken brick), sprinkled with sand on top of 5 - 10 cm, organic fertilizers are applied. Humus, sand and clay are added to the soil. A support is installed in the pit, no more than 8 m in length, along which, counterclockwise, the plant will climb. The root system is cut by one third before planting, the root collar of the seedling should be at ground level. Transplanting from one place to another is possible only in early spring, before the leaves grow. Resistance to low temperatures is manifested only in adult vines at the age of 2 - 3 years. Young plants are laid on the ground for the first frost and sprinkled with dry foliage 8 - 10 cm. If, after the winter period, the tips of the shoots freeze slightly, the plant quickly restores its original appearance. For a graceful Kirkazon, wintering in the garden is destructive, therefore, to preserve the plant, it is dug up and transferred to a bright, warm room. To avoid the annual digging of an ornamental plant from the soil, followed by its return to the ground in spring, experienced gardeners advise planting the vine in large boxes, containers that can be brought into the room before the first frost. The plant is poisonous, as a result of which, Kirkazon clematis is used for medicinal purposes only on the recommendation and prescription of a doctor, strictly in the agreed dose. The healing properties of the Manchurian kirkazon and other species have been studied in detail for many centuries, in various works and manuscripts one can find the description and use of this herb. Possesses antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and healing properties. The healing properties of the herb Kirkazon are used to normalize metabolism, support the immune system. The plant is used in the treatment of various diseases:
The calorie content of plums is 42-47 kcal per 100 g. Nutritional value: carbohydrates - 9.6-11.2 g, proteins - 0.7-0.8 g, fats - 0.3 g per 100 g per 100 g of fruits contains about 88 g of water.
Cultivation and reproduction
Planting Kirkazon Aristolochia
Wintering of Kirkazon Aristolochia
Medicinal preparations of kirkazon lomonosovidny
Useful and medicinal properties
The use of Kirkazon clematis in medicine
Kirkazonovaya grass propagates by seeds, cuttings, root layers.
Cuttings are prepared in spring or autumn: cut annual shoots 20 cm long with several buds. Sand is added to the soil fertilized with humus. Cuttings are inserted into the ground at an angle, leaving several buds above the surface, watered and fertilized abundantly. Then cover with a transparent cap, which is removed after the first leaves appear.
Layering is a simpler and more efficient method. The shoot of the vines is laid and pressed to the ground, after a season the shoot takes root, it is cut off from an adult plant, transplanted to a permanent place of germination. The propagation and layering method is the fastest and most popular among gardeners.
Depending on its resistance to cold weather, the vine is planted in open ground in spring or autumn. Frost-resistant species, in the form of two or three-year seedlings, are planted in autumn, non-frost-resistant ones - in spring. Due to the wide root system, to ensure good development, the plants are planted at a distance of at least 1 m from each other.
For planting, a pit is prepared up to half a meter in depth and width. 10 - 20 cm of drainage is laid on the bottom (expanded clay, crushed stone, gravel, broken brick), sprinkled with sand on top of 5 - 10 cm, organic fertilizers are applied. Humus, sand and clay are added to the soil. A support is installed in the pit, no more than 8 m in length, along which, counterclockwise, the plant will climb. The root system is cut by one third before planting, the root collar of the seedling should be at ground level.
Transplanting from one place to another is possible only in early spring, before the leaves grow.
Resistance to low temperatures is manifested only in adult vines at the age of 2 - 3 years. Young plants are laid on the ground for the first frost and sprinkled with dry foliage 8 - 10 cm. If, after the winter period, the tips of the shoots freeze slightly, the plant quickly restores its original appearance.
For a graceful Kirkazon, wintering in the garden is destructive, therefore, to preserve the plant, it is dug up and transferred to a bright, warm room.
To avoid the annual digging of an ornamental plant from the soil, followed by its return to the ground in spring, experienced gardeners advise planting the vine in large boxes, containers that can be brought into the room before the first frost.
The plant is poisonous, as a result of which, Kirkazon clematis is used for medicinal purposes only on the recommendation and prescription of a doctor, strictly in the agreed dose. The healing properties of the Manchurian kirkazon and other species have been studied in detail for many centuries, in various works and manuscripts one can find the description and use of this herb.
Possesses antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and healing properties. The healing properties of the herb Kirkazon are used to normalize metabolism, support the immune system.
The plant is used in the treatment of various diseases:
Kirkazon clematis in folk medicine is used for the preparation of decoctions, tinctures, ointments for external use. The medicinal medicinal properties of the Kirkazon plant have been known for a long time. In Chinese traditional and oriental medicine, kirkazon is used to treat various ailments, in African peoples it is used as an antidote for snake bites.
Contraindications for the use of Kirkazon lomonosovidny
You should know that Kirkazon is a clematis poisonous plant and it is very dangerous to use medicines based on this plant in excess of the norm.
It is forbidden to use for children, during pregnancy, breastfeeding, gastritis, uterine bleeding, kidney and liver diseases, individual intolerance to plant components.
During use for wiping and compresses, burns (with sensitive skin), burning (with fungal skin lesions) may occur. Often used only externally.
Decoction of Kirkazon roots
They are used for the preparation of baths, compresses, for skin lesions, joint diseases, metabolic disorders. 2 - 3 tbsp are poured into a thermos. l. crushed dried roots, pour 0.5 liters of boiling water. Insist 2-3 hours, then boil in a saucepan for 5-7 minutes. When the pan is removed from the heat, cover it with a towel for 30 minutes, cool and filter. They are added to foot baths, used as rubbing of the affected areas (within 15 - 25 minutes), compresses are made at night.
Infusion of Kirkazon herb
Used as a lotion to relieve skin inflammation and painful sensations. Pour half a teaspoon of the dried crushed plant into the container, pour 100 ml of vodka, close it tightly, put it in a dark cool place for a week. The container with tincture must be shaken every two days. Take 3 times a day, 15 - 20 drops.
Collection and preparation of lomonosovid Kirkazon
For medicinal purposes, the aboveground and underground parts of the plant are collected.
During the peak of flowering, the stems and leaves are cut, the roots are dug up in the fall. The upper deciduous part is dried on a plane, in a well-ventilated room, laid out rather freely, periodically turning it over. Avoid direct sunlight on the cut grass.
The excavated underground part is washed from the ground in cool water, dried in an oven at 60 C. Kirkazon clematis is stored for no more than two years, in a dry room and in a closed container.
Pharmacological properties of Kirkazon clematis
Aristolochinic acids provoke an increase in heart rate, dilate blood vessels, promote the removal of excess fluid from the body, thereby reducing the chance of edema. Preparations from Kirkazon affect foci of fungal and viral diseases.
The plant contains capillary poison that can accumulate in tissue cells. It is necessary to use it carefully, since the manifestation of a carcinogenic effect is possible after a long period of time.
The chemical composition of Kirkazon clematis
In terms of chemical composition, various types of Kirkazone are very different, but they are united by the content of aristolochic acids and their compounds (lactones, glycosides, ethers). The most dangerous, in terms of toxicity, is the clematis kirkazon, since it has the highest concentration of aristolochic acids I and II.
Also contains tannins and bitter substances, phenolic acids, essential oil.